Thursday, September 07, 2006

Re: [itsdifferent] Inventions & discoveries(Must READ Improve ur General Knowledge )


I'm Rashmikant Gadia, writing first time to the group.
This stuff is really extraordinary.
I would you thanks to Fenil Shah for sending such a knowledgeable material.

Thanks once again.


On 9/7/06, Chirag Gandhi <> wrote:

A very good / g8! & huge collection… to read as well as to print & give it to our children who is studying in science stream.


Thanks to fenil.


" Try not to become a man of success but rather try to become a man of value - Albert Einstein "

-----Original Message-----
Fenil Shah []
Sent: Thursday, September 07, 2006 10:35 AM
Subject: Inventions & discoveries(Must READ Improve
ur General Knowledge )




Air Brake :

George Westinghouse, U.S.A. 1911.

Air Conditioning :

Willis Carrier, U.S.A. 1911.

Airplane :

engine-powered, Wilbur & Orville Wright, U.S.A., 1903.

Airship :

Henri Giffard, France, 1852; Ferdinand von Zeppelin, Germany, 1900.

Antibiotics :

Louis Pasteur, Jules-Francois Joubert, France, 1887; (discovery of penicillin) Alexander Fleming, Scotland, 1928.

Antiseptic :

(surgery) Joseph Lister, England, 1867.

Aspirin :

Dr. Felix Hoffman, Germany, 1899.

Atom :

(nuclear model of) Ernest Rutherford, England, 1911.

Atomic Structure :

Ernest Rutherford, England, 1911; Ni els Bohr, Denmark, 1913.

Automated Teller Machine (ATM) :

Don Wetzel, U.S.A., 1968.

Automobile :

(first with internal combustion engine, 250 rmp) Karl Benz, Germany, 1885; (first with practical highspeed internal combustion engine, 900 rpm) Gottlieb Daimler, Germany, 1885; (first true automobile, not carriage with motor) Rene Panhard, Emile Lavassor, France, 1891; (carburetor, spray) Charles E. Duryea, U.S.A., 1892.

Autopilot :

(for aircraft) Elmer A. Sperry, U.S.A., c.1910, first successful test, 1912, in a Curtiss flying boat.











Bacteria :

Anton van Leeuwenhoek, The Netherlands, 1683.

Bakelite :

Leo Hendrik Baekeland, U.S.A., 1907.

Ball Bearing :

Philip Vaughan, England, 1794.

Ballon, Hot-air :

Joseph and Jacques Montgolfier, France, 1783.

Bar Codes :

Monarch Marking, U.S.A. 1970.

Barometer :

Evangelista Torricelli, Italy, 1643.

Bicycle :

Karl D. von Sauebronn, Germany, 1816; (first modern model) James Starley, England, 1884.

Big Bang Theory :

(the universe originated with a huge explosion) George LeMaitre, Belgium, 1927; (modified LeMaitre theory labeled "Big Bang") George A. Gamov, U.S.A., 1948; (cosmic microwave background radiation discovered) Arno A. Penzias and Robert W. Wilson, U.S.A. 1965.

Blood, Circulation of :

William Harvey, England, 1628.

Bomb, Atomic :

J. Robert Oppenheimer et al., U.S.A., 1945.

Bomb, Thermonuclear (hydrogen) :

Edward Teller et al., U.S.A., 1952.

Boyle's Law :

(relation between pressure and volume in gases) Robert Boyle, Ireland, 1662.

Braille :

Louis Braille, France, 1829.

Bridges :

(suspension, iron chains) James Finley, Pa., 1800; (wire suspension) Marc Seguin, Lyons , 1825; (truss) Ithiel Town, U.S.A., 1820.

Bullet :

(conical) Claude Minie, France, 1849.











Calculating Machine :

(logarithms) John Napierm Scotland, 1614; (digital calculator) Blaise Pascal, 1642; (multiplication machine) Go ttfried Leibniz, Germany, 1671; ("analytical engine" design, included concepts of programming, taping) Charles Babbage, England, 1835.

Camera :

George Eastman, U.S.A., 1888; (Polaroid) Edwin Land, U.S.A., 1948

Car Radio :

William Lear, Elmer Wavering, U.S.A. 1929.

Cells :

Robert Hooke, England, 1665.

Chewing Gum :

John Curtis, U.S.A., 1848; (chicle-based) Thomas Adams, U.S.A., 1870.

Cholera Bacterium :

Robert Koch, Germany, 1883.

Circuit, Integrated :

(theoretical) G.W.A. Dummer, England, 1952; Jack S. Kilby, Texas Instruments, U.S.A., 1959.

Clock, Pendulum :

Christian Huygens, The Netherlands, 1656.

Clock, Quartz :

Warren A. Marrison, Canada/U.S.A., 1927.

Cloning, Animal :

John B. Gurdon, U.K., 1970.

Coca-Cola :

John Pemberton, U.S.A., 1886.

Combustion :

Antoine Lavoisier, France, 1777.

Compact Disk :

RCA, U.S.A., 1972.

Compact Disk (CD) :

Philips Electronics, The Netherlands; Sony Corp., Japan, 1980.

Computed Tomography
(CT scan, CAT scan) :

Godfrey Hounsfield, Allan Cormack, U.K. U.S.A., 1972

Computers :

(analytical engine) Charles Babbage, 1830s; (ENIAC, Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator, first all-electronic, completed) John Presper Eckert, Jr., John Mauchly, U.S.A., 1945; (UNIVAC, Universal Automatic Computer) 1951; (personal computer) Steve Wozniak, U.S.A., 1976.

Computer Laptop :

Radio Shack Corp., U.S.A., 1983.

Concrete :

Joseph Monier, France, 1877.












Othmar Zeidler, Germany, 1874.

Detector, Metal :

Gerhard Fisher, Germany/U.S.A., late 1920s.

Deuterium :

(heavy hydrogen) Harold Urey, U.S.A., 1931.


(deoxyribonucleic acid) Friedrich Meischer, Germany, 1869; (determination of double-helical structure) F. H. Crick, England and James D. Watson , U.S.A., 1953.

Dye :

William H. Perkin, England, 1856.

Dynamite :

Alfred Nobel, Sweden, 1867.











Electric Generator (dynamo) :

(laboratory model) Michael Faraday, England, 1832; Joseph Henry, U.S.A., c.1832 ; (hand-driven model) Hippolyte Pixii, France, 1833; (alternating-current generator) Nikola Tesla, U.S.A., 1892.

Electron :

Sir Joseph J. Thompson, U.S.A., 1897.

Electronic Mail :

Ray Tomlinson, U.S.A., 1972.

Elevator, Passenger :

Elisha G. Otis, U.S.A., 1852.


:(equivalence of mass and energy) Albert Einstein, Switzerland, 1907.

Engine, Internal Combustion :

No single inventor. Fundamental theory established by Sadi Carnot, France, 1824; (two-stroke) Etienne Lenoir, France, 1860; (ideal operating cycle for four-stroke) Alphonse Beau de Roche, France, 1862; (operating four-stroke) Nikolaus Otto, Germany, 1876; (diesel) Rudolf Diesel, Germany, 1892; (rotary) Felix Wanket, Germany, 1956.

Evolution :

: (organic) Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, France, 1809; (by natural selection) Charles Darwin, England, 1859.











Facsimile (fax) :

Alexander Bain, Scotland, 1842.

Fiber Optics :

Narinder Kapany, England, 1955.

Film Photographic :

George Eastman, U.S.A., 1884.

Flas hlight, Battery-operated Portable :

Conrad Hubert, Russia/U.S.A., 1899

Flask, Vacuum (Thermos) :

Sir James Dewar, Scotland, 1892.

Fuel Cell :

William R. Grove, U.K., 1839











Genetic Engineering :

Stanley N. Cohen, Herbert W. Boyer, U.S.A., 1973.

Gravitation, Law of :

Sir Issac Newton, England, c.1665 (published 1687).

Gunpowder :

China, c.700.

Gyrocompass :

Elmer A. Sperry, U.S.A., 1905.

Gyroscope :

Jean Leon Foucault, France, 1852.











Helicopter :

(double rotor) Heinrich Focke, Germany, 1936; (single rotor) Igor Silorsky, U.S.A. , 1939.

Helium First Observed on Sun:

Sir Joseph Lockyer, England, 1868.

Home Videotape Systems
(VCR) :

(Betamax) Sony, Japan, (1975); (VHS) Matsushita, Japan, 1975.











Ice Age Theo ry :

Louis Agassiz, Swiss-American, 1840.

Insulin :

(first isolated) Sir Frederick G. Banting and Charles H. Best, Canada , 1921; (discovery first published) Banting and Best, 1922; (Nobel Prize awarded for purification for use in humans) John Macleod and Banting, 1923; (first synthesized), China, 1966.

Internet :

Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) at the Dept. of Defense, U.S.A., 1969.

Iron, Electric :

Henry W. Seely, U.S.A., 1882.

Isotopes :

Frederick Soddy, England, 1912.










Jet Propulsion :

(engine) Sir Frank Whittle, England, Hans von Ohain, Germany, 1936; (aircraft) Heinkel He 178, 1939.











Laser :

(theoretical work on) Charles H. Townes, Arthur L. Schawlow, U.S.A. Basov, A. Prokhorov, U.S.S.R., 1958; (first working model) T. H. Maiman, U.S.A., 1960.

LCD (liquid crystal display) :

Hoffman n-La Roche, Switzerland, 1970.

Lens, Bifocal :

Benjamin Franklin, U.S.A., c.1760.

Light-Emitting Diode (LED) :

Nick Holonyak, Jr., U.S.A., 1962.

Light, Speed of :

(theory that light has finite velocity) Olaus Roemer, Denmark, 1675.

Locomotive :

(steam powered) Richard Trevithick, England, 1804; (first practical, due to multiple-fire-tube boiler) George Stephenson, England, 1829; (largest steam-powered) Union Pacific's "Big Boy", U.S.A., 1941.

Loud Speaker :

Chester W. Rice, Edward W. Kellogg, U.S.A., 1924.











Machine Gun :

(multibarrel) Richard J. Gatling, U.S.A., 1862; (single barrel, belt-fed) Hiram S. Maxim, Anglo-American, 1884.

Magnet, Ea rth is :

William Gilbert, England, 1600.

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) :

Raymond Damadian, Paul Lauterbur, U.S.A., early 1970s.

Matchstick/box :

(phosphorus) Francois Derosne, France, 1816; (friction) Charles Sauria, France, 1831; (safety) J. E. Lundstrom, Sweden, 1855.

Metric System :

Revolutionary government of France, 1790-1801.

Microphone :

Charles Wheatstone, England, 1827.

Microscope :

(compound) Zacharias Janssen, The Netherlands, 1590; (electron) Vladimir Zworykin et al., U.S.A., Canada, Germany, 1932-1939.

Microwave Oven :

Percy Spencer, U.S.A., 1947.

Missile, Guided :

Wernher von Braun, Germany, 1942.

Motion, Laws of :

Isaac Newton, England, 1687.

Motion Pictures :

Thomas A. Edison, U.S.A., 1893.

Motion Pictures, Sound :

Product of various inventions. First picture with synchronized musical score : Don Juan, 1926; with spoken diologue : The Jazz Singer, 1927; both Warner Bros.

Motor, Electric :

Michael Faraday, England, 1822; (alternating-current) Nikola Tesla, U.S.A., 1892.

Motorcy cle :

(motor tricycle) Edward Butler, England, 1884; (gasoline-engine motorcycle) Gottlieb Daimler, Germany, 1885.

Moving Assembly Line :

Henry Ford, U.S.A., 1913.











Neutron :

James Chadwick, England, 1932.

Nuclear Fission :

Otto Hahn, Fritz Strassmann, Germany, 1938.



[Message clipped]  

Note: This Group is not a Job Searching Group, so please co-operate and dont transfer any kind of job related material across this Group.AnyOne doing so can be banned from the Group
Thanx , Group Co-Ordinators
New Message Search

Find the message you want faster. Visit your group to try out the improved message search.



No comments: