I'm Rashmikant Gadia, writing first time to the group.
This stuff is really extraordinary.
I would you thanks to Fenil Shah for sending such a knowledgeable material.
Thanks once again.
A very good / g8! & huge collection… to read as well as to print & give it to our children who is studying in science stream.
Thanks to fenil.
" Try not to become a man of success but rather try to become a man of value - Albert Einstein "
From: Fenil Shah 
Sent: Thursday, September 07, 2006 10:35 AM
Subject: Inventions & discoveries(
Must READ Improveur General Knowledge )
Air Brake :
George Westinghouse, U.S.A. 1911.
Air Conditioning :
Willis Carrier, U.S.A. 1911.
engine-powered, Wilbur & Orville Wright, U.S.A., 1903.
Henri Giffard, France, 1852; Ferdinand von Zeppelin, Germany, 1900.
Louis Pasteur, Jules-Francois Joubert, France, 1887; (discovery of penicillin) Alexander Fleming, Scotland, 1928.
(surgery) Joseph Lister, England, 1867.
Dr. Felix Hoffman, Germany, 1899.
(nuclear model of) Ernest Rutherford, England, 1911.
Atomic Structure :
Ernest Rutherford, England, 1911; Ni els Bohr, Denmark, 1913.
Automated Teller Machine (ATM) :
Don Wetzel, U.S.A., 1968.
(first with internal combustion engine, 250 rmp) Karl Benz, Germany, 1885; (first with practical highspeed internal combustion engine, 900 rpm) Gottlieb Daimler, Germany, 1885; (first true automobile, not carriage with motor) Rene Panhard, Emile Lavassor, France, 1891; (carburetor, spray) Charles E. Duryea, U.S.A., 1892.
(for aircraft) Elmer A. Sperry, U.S.A., c.1910, first successful test, 1912, in a Curtiss flying boat.
Anton van Leeuwenhoek, The Netherlands, 1683.
Leo Hendrik Baekeland, U.S.A., 1907.
Ball Bearing :
Philip Vaughan, England, 1794.
Ballon, Hot-air :
Joseph and Jacques Montgolfier, France, 1783.
Bar Codes :
Monarch Marking, U.S.A. 1970.
Evangelista Torricelli, Italy, 1643.
Karl D. von Sauebronn, Germany, 1816; (first modern model) James Starley, England, 1884.
Big Bang Theory :
(the universe originated with a huge explosion) George LeMaitre, Belgium, 1927; (modified LeMaitre theory labeled "Big Bang") George A. Gamov, U.S.A., 1948; (cosmic microwave background radiation discovered) Arno A. Penzias and Robert W. Wilson, U.S.A. 1965.
Blood, Circulation of :
William Harvey, England, 1628.
Bomb, Atomic :
J. Robert Oppenheimer et al., U.S.A., 1945.
Bomb, Thermonuclear (hydrogen) :
Edward Teller et al., U.S.A., 1952.
Boyle's Law :
(relation between pressure and volume in gases) Robert Boyle, Ireland, 1662.
Louis Braille, France, 1829.
(suspension, iron chains) James Finley, Pa., 1800; (wire suspension) Marc Seguin, Lyons , 1825; (truss) Ithiel Town, U.S.A., 1820.
(conical) Claude Minie, France, 1849.
Calculating Machine :
(logarithms) John Napierm Scotland, 1614; (digital calculator) Blaise Pascal, 1642; (multiplication machine) Go ttfried Leibniz, Germany, 1671; ("analytical engine" design, included concepts of programming, taping) Charles Babbage, England, 1835.
George Eastman, U.S.A., 1888; (Polaroid) Edwin Land, U.S.A., 1948
Car Radio :
William Lear, Elmer Wavering, U.S.A. 1929.
Robert Hooke, England, 1665.
Chewing Gum :
John Curtis, U.S.A., 1848; (chicle-based) Thomas Adams, U.S.A., 1870.
Cholera Bacterium :
Robert Koch, Germany, 1883.
Circuit, Integrated :
(theoretical) G.W.A. Dummer, England, 1952; Jack S. Kilby, Texas Instruments, U.S.A., 1959.
Clock, Pendulum :
Christian Huygens, The Netherlands, 1656.
Clock, Quartz :
Warren A. Marrison, Canada/U.S.A.
Cloning, Animal :
John B. Gurdon, U.K., 1970.
John Pemberton, U.S.A., 1886.
Antoine Lavoisier, France, 1777.
Compact Disk :
RCA, U.S.A., 1972.
Compact Disk (CD) :
Philips Electronics, The Netherlands; Sony Corp., Japan, 1980.
(CT scan, CAT scan) :
Godfrey Hounsfield, Allan Cormack, U.K. U.S.A., 1972
(analytical engine) Charles Babbage, 1830s; (ENIAC, Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator, first all-electronic, completed) John Presper Eckert, Jr., John Mauchly, U.S.A., 1945; (UNIVAC, Universal Automatic Computer) 1951; (personal computer) Steve Wozniak, U.S.A., 1976.
Computer Laptop :
Radio Shack Corp., U.S.A., 1983.
Joseph Monier, France, 1877.
Othmar Zeidler, Germany, 1874.
Detector, Metal :
Gerhard Fisher, Germany/U.S.A., late 1920s.
(heavy hydrogen) Harold Urey, U.S.A., 1931.
(deoxyribonucleic acid) Friedrich Meischer, Germany, 1869; (determination of double-helical structure) F. H. Crick, England and James D. Watson , U.S.A., 1953.
William H. Perkin, England, 1856.
Alfred Nobel, Sweden, 1867.
Electric Generator (dynamo) :
(laboratory model) Michael Faraday, England, 1832; Joseph Henry, U.S.A., c.1832 ; (hand-driven model) Hippolyte Pixii, France, 1833; (alternating-
current generator)Nikola Tesla, U.S.A., 1892.
Sir Joseph J. Thompson, U.S.A., 1897.
Electronic Mail :
Ray Tomlinson, U.S.A., 1972.
Elevator, Passenger :
Elisha G. Otis, U.S.A., 1852.
:(equivalence of mass and energy) Albert Einstein, Switzerland, 1907.
Engine, Internal Combustion :
No single inventor. Fundamental theory established by Sadi Carnot, France, 1824; (two-stroke) Etienne Lenoir, France, 1860; (ideal operating cycle for four-stroke) Alphonse Beau de Roche, France, 1862; (operating four-stroke) Nikolaus Otto, Germany, 1876; (diesel) Rudolf Diesel, Germany, 1892; (rotary) Felix Wanket, Germany, 1956.
: (organic) Jean-Baptiste Lamarck, France, 1809; (by natural selection) Charles Darwin, England, 1859.
Facsimile (fax) :
Alexander Bain, Scotland, 1842.
Fiber Optics :
Narinder Kapany, England, 1955.
Film Photographic :
George Eastman, U.S.A., 1884.
Flas hlight, Battery-operated Portable :
Conrad Hubert, Russia/U.S.A.
Flask, Vacuum (Thermos) :
Sir James Dewar, Scotland, 1892.
Fuel Cell :
William R. Grove, U.K., 1839
Genetic Engineering :
Stanley N. Cohen, Herbert W. Boyer, U.S.A., 1973.
Gravitation, Law of :
Sir Issac Newton, England, c.1665 (published 1687).
Elmer A. Sperry, U.S.A., 1905.
Jean Leon Foucault, France, 1852.
(double rotor) Heinrich Focke, Germany, 1936; (single rotor) Igor Silorsky, U.S.A. , 1939.
Helium First Observed on Sun:
Sir Joseph Lockyer, England, 1868.
Home Videotape Systems
(Betamax) Sony, Japan, (1975); (VHS) Matsushita, Japan, 1975.
Ice Age Theo ry :
Louis Agassiz, Swiss-American, 1840.
(first isolated) Sir Frederick G. Banting and Charles H. Best, Canada , 1921; (discovery first published) Banting and Best, 1922; (Nobel Prize awarded for purification for use in humans) John Macleod and Banting, 1923; (first synthesized)
Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) at the Dept. of Defense, U.S.A., 1969.
Iron, Electric :
Henry W. Seely, U.S.A., 1882.
Frederick Soddy, England, 1912.
Jet Propulsion :
(engine) Sir Frank Whittle, England, Hans von Ohain, Germany, 1936; (aircraft) Heinkel He 178, 1939.
(theoretical work on) Charles H. Townes, Arthur L. Schawlow, U.S.A. Basov, A. Prokhorov, U.S.S.R., 1958; (first working model) T. H. Maiman, U.S.A., 1960.
LCD (liquid crystal display) :
Hoffman n-La Roche, Switzerland, 1970.
Lens, Bifocal :
Benjamin Franklin, U.S.A., c.1760.
Light-Emitting Diode (LED) :
Nick Holonyak, Jr., U.S.A., 1962.
Light, Speed of :
(theory that light has finite velocity) Olaus Roemer, Denmark, 1675.
(steam powered) Richard Trevithick, England, 1804; (first practical, due to multiple-fire-
tube boiler) George Stephenson,England, 1829; (largest steam-powered) Union Pacific's "Big Boy", U.S.A., 1941.
Loud Speaker :
Chester W. Rice, Edward W. Kellogg, U.S.A., 1924.
Machine Gun :
(multibarrel) Richard J. Gatling, U.S.A., 1862; (single barrel, belt-fed) Hiram S. Maxim, Anglo-American, 1884.
Magnet, Ea rth is :
William Gilbert, England, 1600.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) :
Raymond Damadian, Paul Lauterbur, U.S.A., early 1970s.
(phosphorus) Francois Derosne, France, 1816; (friction) Charles Sauria, France, 1831; (safety) J. E. Lundstrom, Sweden, 1855.
Metric System :
Revolutionary government of France, 1790-1801.
Charles Wheatstone, England, 1827.
(compound) Zacharias Janssen, The Netherlands, 1590; (electron) Vladimir Zworykin et al., U.S.A., Canada, Germany, 1932-1939.
Microwave Oven :
Percy Spencer, U.S.A., 1947.
Missile, Guided :
Wernher von Braun, Germany, 1942.
Motion, Laws of :
Isaac Newton, England, 1687.
Motion Pictures :
Thomas A. Edison, U.S.A., 1893.
Motion Pictures, Sound :
Product of various inventions. First picture with synchronized musical score : Don Juan, 1926; with spoken diologue : The Jazz Singer, 1927; both Warner Bros.
Motor, Electric :
Michael Faraday, England, 1822; (alternating-
current)Nikola Tesla, U.S.A., 1892.
Motorcy cle :
(motor tricycle) Edward Butler, England, 1884; (gasoline-engine motorcycle) Gottlieb Daimler, Germany, 1885.
Moving Assembly Line :
Henry Ford, U.S.A., 1913.
James Chadwick, England, 1932.
Nuclear Fission :
Otto Hahn, Fritz Strassmann, Germany, 1938.
Thanx , Group Co-Ordinators
Find the message you want faster. Visit your group to try out the improved message search.